One year and 2 months later….

… and the last participant of study 1 has

taken part!!!!!!!!!!!!

source: a photo taken by my better half at a fireworks display in Bristol a few years back

As I write this post the final participant is just running through the study, and it seemed like a good time to reflect on what has been involved in this study, as quite often I find, you don’t quite realise how much work you’ve done until you add up how many questionnaires you’ve administered, or hours you’ve spent with participants. So here we go – a few stats:

  • It has taken a year and 2 months
  • It has involved 104participants.
    • 52 4th year MPharm students from the University of Bath took part.
    • 52  community pharmacists from the south-west (and also a lot farther afield thanks to some very dedicated pharmacists) took part
  • 416 questionnaires have been completed for this study (I am slightly regretting asking so many questions now that I have seen the finished size of the study database)
  • In testing time alone it has taken 208 hours

I am, as you can tell, relatively calm about this landmark moment in my PhD! 

Actually when you look at the stats above, that doesn’t look like that much for a years work but it feels like a lot more has been involved – and there has really – all the difficult to measure time spent on recruitment, posting out info, e-mailing and telephoning pharmacists and pharmacies.

But I didn’t do this alone – a few people in particular have been a huge support – and have contributed a lot to this research so here are my acknowledgements:

  1. Jane – my very dedicated supervisor – I need several posts just to tell you how flipping wonderful she is. We have the best time ever working together, it is not work, it’s lots of giggles. We can be serious too though.
  2. Chris – who looks after our student dispensary – and for the last 2 years my research projects!
  3. My Office – I work in an office with about 9 other people (it varies from time to time) PhD students and Research Officers. Between them they have fielded phone calls for me and met participants when I have been with other participants in our student dispensary, which helpfully has no mobile phone reception, or easy-to-get to land-line. Without them, many participants may never have found me! Universities are such rabbit warrens – I still get lost and I’ve been here 4 years!

So there you go, study 1 down! Study 2 and the follow-up study will be down before Christmas. Hooray!

And now to leave my desk and head off for a celebratory dinner with Mr F!

25.9.12 – an even more overdue study update

I cannot believe it has been 3 months since I posted an update on our progress – I am a very bad PhD student!

In my defence, I have been super busy meeting lots of amazing community pharmacists who have been coming to the University of Bath to take part in our study. I have also been trying to write some reports and bits of pieces (hopefully some of which I can upload sometime soon – I will as soon as they are published).

Anyway, lets talk figures, after all this year was about reaching recruitment and study targets – so how am I doing?

Community Pharmacist study

We are almost – but not quite at our target sample – we need about 20-30 more recruits. We have 78 people signed up to date – most of them booked in to take part if they haven’t already done so. I had planned to have everyone recruited by now, so I am a little behind my “in a perfect world” schedule – however, luckily for me, I went on a project planning course once and they told me to always budget for 25% extra time for each part of your study in your project timetable as things always take longer than we anticipate. The teacher on this course was correct and I knew she was having worked as an assistant to other research projects before I started my PhD. So I had made sure I had wiggle room in my timetable when I planned it all out. We still haven’t used up all our mail-shot attempts (we try never to do more than 3 otherwise it seems a bit like we are pestering people to take part in our research) and I will also follow-up with some telephone calls to make sure that pharmacists receive the packs as often they don’t or they get lost in the mounds of paperwork that community pharmacies receive.

The great news is that of those 78 pharmacists I have met and tested 51 of them. Forty-0ne of these pharmacists have taken part in the first study and 10 in the second. I need a minimum of 52 pharmacists to take part in study 1 and study 2 – and I almost have enough people signed up in the next couple of weeks for study 1 so I am so very close to completing that data set. I have also met one person and interviewed them as part of the follow-up study. I will be recruiting participants for this follow-up study in the coming weeks (I need another 9 pharmacists for this part) – so if you have taken part in study 1 or 2 – you may receive an e-mail / letter asking if you would like to take part in the follow-up study. I cannot wait for this part – I love interviewing people, not just because I enjoy talking to people, but because I learn so much during these interviews about the topic I am studying. Fingers crossed my participants will enjoy it too!

We are almost there! If you are reading this and you are a community pharmacist and you haven’t yet taken part in our study – please read our study page to find out more about taking part. We can offer funds for locum cover for your pharmacy for a day – so that you can come and take part without your pharmacy having to bear the cost of being one pharmacist down! If you are interested in taking part you can get in touch with me here and I will reply ASAP.

Pharmacy Student Study

The students return next week (w/c 1st October 2012) and so phase 2 of our pharmacy student research will begin. We need 52 pharmacy students to take part, and so there is lots of work to be done between now and Christmas. I am hoping that I can recruit and test all the pharmacy students we need for our second and final study so that the data is all ready to analyse in January. Fingers crossed we have lots of willing recruits! You can find out more about this study here.

So there you have it, as you can see I have been busy, but there is a LOT of work still to do! I’ll be back with another update soon (I promise I will not wait 3 months this time).

17.06.2012 – A long overdue study update!

I cannot believe it, the end of this week marked the end of my second year of my PhD. I am now officially a third (and hopefully final) year PhD student. The great news is, we are running to plan. As you should be able to see from the Gantt chart above I have until December this year to finish my data collection. Thankfully, everything seems to be running pretty smoothly, as you can see in my updates below.

Pharmacy Student Study Update

Well the great news is that we have completed the first of the two planned studies with our pharmacy students at the University of Bath. I finally hit my target recruitment for study 1. It has taken me a good 9 months to get all the participants we needed, thankfully I completed the qualitative aspect months ago and all the data is ready and waiting to be analysed. So this week I am going to be looking at that as I have a week off from the Community Pharmacist study (more about that in the update below). In October when the students return, we will start the second study and hope that our recruitment is quicker this time round – with all that we have learnt from this first study about how to engage students in our research.

The students who have taken part in our first study have been fantastic and they have given me lots of ideas, and plans for future research. So a huge thank you to all of them for all their help. Finishing this first study was a real boost for my motivation – the end is now in sight and it is just the icing on the top of the cake that I met so many students on my way to this first target.

Community Pharmacist Study Update

Things are starting to move pretty quickly now which is exciting. We have around 20 pharmacists from a range of community pharmacy settings (supermarket, national chain, independent, as well as some lovely locum pharmacists) signed up and booked in to take part so we are already roughly 1/5 of our way to our minimum recruitment figures (min 104 participants – max 130 participants). The rest are slowly but surely coming in and we are starting to experience a snow-ball effect where the participants we have already met are recommending our project to their colleagues. I will take this opportunity to say thank you so much to those pharmacists who are recommending our study – we really appreciate your support. Unlike the pharmacy student participants, our community pharmacist participants need a little more notice to either organise locum cover, or find a day when they can come in, and so I have just begun to meet my first few participants in the last few weeks. So far so good, the testing is going well and our first few participants have reported that they enjoyed the study and see the applications of the theory underlying these studies and our plans for the future as important for their profession which is more than encouraging.

It has now been about six weeks since I sent out the first round of invitations to pharmacists to invite them to take part (before that we spent a few weeks contacting pharmacy organisations asking for their permission to carry out the research with their pharmacists). The standard protocol is to do three mail shots, so after this we have one more mail-shot to do (in about another 6 weeks time). I will also be following this mail-shot up with phone-calls to pharmacies over the coming weeks, to aid recruitment. Anyway, Jane and I spent almost 2 whole days preparing information packs for our second round of invitations to pharmacists to take part in the study. I am so grateful to Jane, like all lecturers she is stupidly busy, but she still finds time to help me out stuffing envelopes.

Key dates:

One of the big upcoming events in this project’s diary is our Project Management Group meeting which is next Monday 25th June, which I am both nervous and excited for. It’s like having a mini viva (viva: the oral exam which all PhD students have to pass to receive their PhD) every time we meet with our PMG. All the members are incredibly knowledgeable and very important in the Pharmacy world and so it is important to me that I can show them what a great job that Jane, Marjorie and I have been doing since we last met. In July we will submit our interim report to our funders so the meeting is in preparation for this.

One other little project…

As if I didn’t have enough to do this week, this is the week that our bathroom is being renovated. This is the first major thing we have done to our home and I am very nervous that there is something we haven’t considered or planned for. Purposefully, I have not planned to meet any participants this week, as I know that tomorrow when our bathroom is ripped out I am going to be a bag of nerves and won’t settle until it is all re-fitted and finished! A nervous researcher is not ideal especially when running experiments because the experimenter can consciously or unconsciously have a large effect on participants behaviour. I always aim to be calm, collected and approachable. If any of my family or friends are reading this last line I know they are now laughing because I am not well-known for being calm and collected, I am generally quite an excited, over-enthusiastic person!

I promise to be back with another update soon!

Pharmacy student & Community Pharmacist studies progress update

SUCCESS image credits to the_chosen_pessimist
(http://the-chosen-pessimist.deviantart.com/art/SUCCESS-100186742)

Well it has been a while since I wrote an update on our progress. So I suspect I have a lot to write about in this update post. February and March were very exciting months for us and I am pleased to say that the projects are progressing pretty much as well as we could possibly hope for. I love the photo above, I saw a presentation once where someone used this, and it is just such a great photo – perfectly demonstrates that feeling of yes – I’ve done it. Well we haven’t quite done it yet, but we are feeling pretty good about where we have got to so far so I thought this was a fitting image for this post!

Pharmacy Student Study Update

I have now reached the end of recruitment with our current 4th year Pharmacy students. Our total number of participants hit 43 – so we have no quite reached our target for the first (of 2) experiments with the pharmacy students. However, all 43 participants provided complete sets of data (for which I am very thankful) so they can all be part of the analysis. I am going to set about analysing this data now and see if we have found anything, but as we are 9 short of our minimum sample size of 52 for experiment 1 (we based this on Cohen’s power primer paper) I expect we will need to recruit and test some more participants. If the analyses don’t show anything significant yet (my sneak peaks definitely suggest there may be some trends) I will recruit the remaining 9 (or a few more if we can) from the 3rd year students once they have sat their dispensing exams next month.

I had completed the qualitative arm of experiment 1 at the end of 2011 so I am slowly transcribing this data and need to start analysing that too.

Community Pharmacist Study Update

To date we have 5 of the large multiple pharmacies signed up (this includes community pharmacies based in supermarkets). They all wrote back within a few days of receiving our letter and one company even rang to say how interested they were! We also have been contacted by a few community pharmacists (even before we sent out recruitment letters) who have seen our media coverage and said they would like to take part! We are thrilled by this response. We have yet to contact individual pharmacists, but we have our first project management group meeting on Thursday and we wanted to hold off before we spoke to our key advisors to make sure whether they had any hints and tips on how best to approach individual pharmacists (that we haven’t already thought of).

This brings me onto our second item – our project management group (PMG). I can’t quite believe we have managed to do this, but, we have a rather prestigious set of individuals (who I won’t name just yet as I haven’t asked them if I can) all involved in UK pharmacy practice either at a strategic, academic or practice level who have agreed to be members of our PMG. The first meeting is this Thursday (5th April 2012) which I am preparing for at the moment. This meeting will just be an introduction to the project, but we will meet 3 more times before the end of the project to discuss our findings and prepare our reports to PTECO and plan journal and conference papers.  The members of our PMG have been specifically selected to give a local and national strategic view on the impact our data may have on practice. They may also have alternative interpretations of our results to offer, given their insights into community pharmacy practice across organisations, experiences of running a community pharmacy and/or as a community pharmacist. This will ensure our research stays firmly grounded in UK pharmacy practice. Personally, I cannot wait for this first meeting, it is a huge opportunity for me to meet these individuals, nevermind have them involved in my doctoral research.

I think this study will move a lot quicker than the pharmacy student study so I hope to be providing very regular updates on our progress with it.

All in all, things are looking very good! What a lucky PhD student I am!

Student Study & Community Pharmacist Study Updates 14.03.2012

Image by Roger Hargreaves

Sorry for the lack of study updates recently, it has been a busy few weeks. It started with a weeks worth of media coverage of our community pharmacist study that we have just launched in various pharmacy publications – who would have known a project not even completed could create so much interest? For this Jane, Marjorie and I are so very grateful and very excited – we hope there is just as much interest next year when we have data to publish.

In between that I have been testing participants for the student study. We are now up to 40 students through the first experiment so we have almost hit our total for the first study (52). I am hoping we get our last few recruits soon because I cannot wait to look at our data. The database is looking so lovely and full – it’s odd, but to me it really is a thing of beauty. This is probably because I know how many hours of hard work has gone into filling the database and it’s amazing to see the slow but sure outcome of all our efforts.

With regards to the community pharmacist study, the big news is that we got ethics a couple of weeks ago and I have now sent out information about the study (as of today) to pharmacy chain CEOs and superintendent pharmacists, to ask their permission for me to do research with their organisation before I contact their local and regional pharmacy managers about it. The independent pharmacy and small pharmacy chain letters are in process too and I hope I will get them out tomorrow. So we are definitely on a roll.

In between that I have been doing a lot of demonstrating work – which is basically a teaching assistant role for university workshops. I love these sessions – even when I do the same session several times over with different groups of students. However, it does take me out of the lab for hours at a time, and/or away from my desk and so I have noticed that my research time has more than halved in the last few weeks. There are only a few more weeks left of teaching for me now until next October, so I am making the most of it because I really do enjoy working with the students.

In the odd moments of calm I have also been busy working with Jane and Marjorie and some of our other colleagues on papers and grant proposals.

How I have found time to do all this I just don’t know, in fact now I read this it is no wonder I have felt like a headless chicken the last few weeks. Ironically, my mental workload has been very high at times (mostly due to time pressure) and I have noticed myself missing things, doing things wrong or forgetting to do things. So it’s not only pharmacists that may be affected by mental workload, it may be researchers too!

So as you can see it has been an amazing few weeks, busy, but in the best of ways. I have yet to have time to listen to the second installment of the Prof James Reason medical errors BBC radio 4 programme that I wrote about here. I hope I get to listen to it by the end of the week and I will write about it then!

Mention in the Pharmacy Business Magazine

Today our project (with a smiley picture of me) was mentioned in the Pharmacy Business Magazine. I am so excited that already there is a bit of a buzz around this project. Not only have we been mentioned in the pharmacy business magazine, but we’ve had lots of visitors to our website and even researchers from other disciplines at our University talking about the research and asking me questions. Hopefully when we have the results at the end of the year – it will be just as exciting. Meanwhile all this attention has spurred me into getting lots of content uploaded to this site – which is great as sometimes I do need a bit of time pressure to get me kick started into action. Especially when it is term time and there is lots of teaching assistant work to be done.

Keep coming back for more updates – I am sure there are going to be lots as I start contacting community pharmacies to see if their pharmacists would like to take part in our study!

P.s. I am writing this whilst a student participant is taking part in the study in one of our sound proofed booths – the study has been running so smoothly after we ironed out most of the glitches in the pilots study that I can multi-task and get things like this done in between each stage of the study. Needless to say I am starting to feel quite relaxed on the days I am testing participants (which is a relief, because during the pilot study I was a bag of nerves).

Recruitment Update for Pharmacy Student study 23.02.2012

Good news! Things are looking up. Since my slightly downbeat, and overall nervous post a few days ago, about my concerns over the slow recruitment, I have had some more people sign up over the last few days and I am now much more hopeful that we will reach our first recruitment target in the next few weeks.

By tomorrow I will have tested 33 participants and I have another 5 lined up. So only 14 more pharmacy students needed now! Phew!

One thing I also didn’t mention in my last post, is that there are about 90 students in the 4th year of the Master of Pharmacy programme. My aim is to recruit 52 4th year students this year so I am trying to recruit over half of this group, which is a rather ambitious target for any research project. So when you think about it like that I actually have been very lucky to have so many enthusiastic pharmacy students take part already. So really my recruitment rate is quite healthy. Hooray! I will still keep willing the recruitment to go faster though as I cannot wait till I can run some analyses.

Recruitment update for pharmacy student study

This week I re-started the recruitment and testing for our pharmacy student study. I had to pause recruitment and testing for this study for the whole of December and January whilst the students were away for their Christmas holidays and then the exam period in the new year. So I was well and truly ready to get stuck back in to the data collection. I can’t wait till I’ve completed the first study so that we can run our analyses and see what is happening.

The good news is I made a very good start in this first week as I managed to test six students. I have got another 4 booked in this week and then a couple for the following week. However, frustratingly I need about another 20 people to sign up and I am struggling to get there. My posters, visits to lectures and 2 recruitment e-mails have only pulled in those 12 or so participants, I have one e-mail reminder left and then I am not sure what I am going to do next to get students participating in my study other than relying on the snowball effect from now on.

I now know I have chosen a difficult group to study and I am starting to understand why the researchers whose work I am trying to replicate and extend used psychology undergraduates, not pharmacy undergraduates. The advantage to using Psychology students for research is they have to take part in experiments to gain course credits – so you have a captive audience. When I did my psychology degree we all had to do 10hrs research participation every term for 3 years mostly taking part in post-grads research. So in total those postgrads got 90hrs of my time! For free! Pharmacy students dont have to take part in research and are not used to being invited to take part in research either. Plus pharmacy students have a huge work load (especially compared to psychology students) so it does not surprise me that I am struggling to get loads of volunteers.

However this study is important and just because a population is hard to reach/engage it doesn’t mean you should not involve them in research – in fact not to do so leads to biased research in any given area. So I will keep going! I have one last hope that this term I help teach on the health psychology module to my target participants and so maybe seeing me once a week for the next few months will help me keep my project in their minds and maybe they will eventually sign up.

Having had a mini rant I must also add that I have been so pleased to meet everyone who has taken part so far. They have all been lovely and enthusiastic and have had lots of helpful insights into the real world application of my research. More than that, having met them all I am super impressed with all these soon to be pharmacists that the University of Bath are producing. I am not saying this because it is the corporate line, I honestly can’t sing their praises enough when I compare myself to them at their age I had no clue how to act professionally and yet they are becoming true professionals already. Plus their knowledge on medicines is immense. It is very impressive.

I hope to bring you lots of positive recruitment updates over the next few weeks and fingers crossed I may even reach my targets soon.

P.s. I’ve updated my recruitment syringe on the homepage as I’ve now tested 30 participants in total!

Recruitment update for Pharmacy Student Study

Recruitment figures for Pharmacy Student study up to 17.01.2012

Currently we have 21 participants recruited into the pharmacy student study. We need a minimum of 110 participants. To fulfill this ambitious target we are currently recruiting  from the 2011/12 4th year MPharmacy Students. After the summer exams we will be recruiting the 2011/12 3rd year MPharmacy Students who will then become the 2012/13 4th year MPharm students (and will be targeted for recruitment a second time from October 2012 onwards).

As you can see from this Syringe we still have a long way to go!

Ready, Set, go…

(Image courtesy of Microsoft clipart)

Well now we’re in 2012 and this is THE year for my PhD. I have until December to collect all the data I need (eeek). I can definitely feel the clock ticking and more than anything else I cannot believe I am over half-way through my PhD. Where did all that time go? More for my needs than anyone elses, below is a quick summary of what I have done in the last couple of months and what is next.

Where I have got to: The student study has been up and running for a few months, although nothing has been happening since mid-December as the students are on exams till February. However, by December I had recruited and tested 21 pharmacy students and interviewed 7 of these participants for the qualitative part of the student study. The ethics applications for the staff study have been written and will be submitted ASAP for review at the beginning of February.

What’s happening next: The students will hopefully be back at the beginning of February so recruitment and testing will start in a week or so. This time I am armed with some fancy posters to try and attract their attention. Also, the community pharmacist study will hopefully be launching in the next few weeks and I am very excited about that. The chance to take my ideas out into practice will be very cool. I am hoping as well as getting lots of participants that I will get lots of very useful feedback from community pharmacists and the other pharmacy staff about my ideas and research which will be great for my write-up next year.

Blog changes: As this blog was set up as a site where potential participants could learn more about my research I need to re-focus this blog so that it meets their needs. This has meant a little bit of reorganisation  so that there are now pages for my two groups of participants. I also decided to change the theme, decided on this calm blue one – I wonder if the colour of your blog/website affects people’s decision to participate in your research/ buy your product / read your posts? I am sure there must be some brand-based research out there that has the answer to that question. Anyway, I digress! Please bear with me if you have been reading this and things keep moving around. It will all be sorted shortly and then order will be restored (well the kind of order that exists inside my head anyway as this blog is organised in a way that makes sense to me)!

osarm's Blog

This WordPress.com site is the cat’s pajamas

The Research Whisperer

Just like the Thesis Whisperer - but with more money

The Thesis Whisperer

Just like the horse whisperer - but with more pages

M&J Blog

Research into mental workload & dispensing errors

the doodle house

A gleeful account of the escapades of two 20-somethings, our dogs and a little house in Austin.

SEW KATIE DID

because thread is the best glue.

Probable Error

I don't mean to sound critical, but I am; so that's how it comes across

Pharmacy Thoughts

Tales from your friendly neighborhood pharmacist

The Apothecarium

Pharmacy blog dedicated to personal experiences and professional references.

ILLUSTRATION AGE

THE ULTIMATE RESOURCE FOR ILLUSTRATORS

mrdispenser

Thoughts of a community pharmacist

Paula Knight Illustrator-Writer

Comics, writing, non-motherhood, children's lit

Ali Does It Herself

adventures in grown-up living

smallestforest.wordpress.com/

Express yourself. It is later than you think.

BRAIN'S IDEA

Ideas for brainy people by someone who minds.

TED Blog

The TED Blog shares interesting news about TED, TED Talks video, the TED Prize and more.

Craft Schmaft

Making Happy